Archaeologists have discovered a site in northern Kenya where a mass killing took place about 10000 years ago. The nomads were not buried but were left to die in the open.
The archaeologists discovered that the men, women and children were stabbed or clubbed to death. They do not really know, however, how the ancient massacre happened.
Nataruk, near Lake Turkana, was an area full of vegetation which attracted many grazing animals. It was more liveable than the other side of the lake, which was very rocky. One of the reasons for the ancient massacre may be food that groups of hunters and gatherers were fighting for.
The skeletons that scientists found at the site showed wounds on the necks of the victims. In some cases their skulls were smashed. One man was found with with a sharp blade of volcanic rock still embedded in his skull. Others had broken arms and legs. A pregnant woman was found with her arms and legs tied together.
Although the massacre in northern Kenya is the oldest evidence of violence between groups of people, historians believe that warfareemerged much later when humans stopped being nomads and started to settle down. They claim that nomads probably did not fight because they were able to move away from danger.
The grave site, first discovered in 2012, is proof that violence may have been going on longer than first thought.
although = while
archaeologist = person who studies old civilizations and the buildings and houses that are left over from that time
attract = here: to make animals go there
blade = flat part of a knife or other object used for cutting
bury = put a dead person into a grave
club = to beat a person with a heavy object or stick
discover = to find for the first time
embedded = still fixed into something
emerge = come up, start
evidence = one or more reasons that shows that something has happened
gatherer = a person who gathers food instead of getting it by farming
grave = place where a dead person is buried
graze = when animals eat grass
historian = someone who writes about or studies history
liveable = here: better to live
mass killing = the killing of many people at once
nomad = person who moves from one place to another instead of living in the same place all the time
pregnant = to expect a baby
proof = evidence, facts that show something is true
scientist = a person who is trained in science and works in a lab
site = place
skeleton = the frame of bones of a human
skull = bones of the head that surround the brain
smash = break into pieces
stab = here: kill someone with a knife or other sharp object
America’s fast food giant McDonald’s is planning to open more new restaurants in Russia. The company, which has been operating in Russia for 26 years, has constantlyexpanded over the years. In 2015 the franchise opened 59 restaurants and plans to open 60 more this year. Currently, McDonald’s operates 543 restaurants in Russia. According to a company spokesperson, it will invest over a hundred million dollars.
In addition, McDonald’s wants to buy more food from local suppliers. Western countries have imposedsanctions on Russia because of the country’s role in the Ukraine conflict. In retaliation, Russia has placed an embargo on food coming from the west. Last year over 80% of the food used in McDonald’s restaurants was produced in Russia.
In the future, it wants to become completely independent and get everything from local suppliers. Within the next two years chicken and beef is to come from local farms. McDonald’s also intends to grow Russian potatoes used for French fries.
The fast food franchise is extremelypopular among Russians, even though McDonald’s had to increase menu prices because of the sinking value of the rouble.
according to = as said by …
beef = meat from cows
constantly = the whole time
currently = now, at the moment
embargo = stop trading with another country
even though = despite
expand = to become larger
extremely = very
franchise = the right to sell products using a company’s name
giant = here: very large company
impose = put into effect
in addition = also
increase = to make more expensive
independent = here: not need
intend = plan
local supplier = here: company that produces food in Russia and sells it to McDonald’s
operate = here: to do business
popular = much liked
retaliation = to punish someone because they have done harm to you; to take revenge
rouble = money used in Russia
sanction = order that stops or reduces trading to another country in order to make it follow certain rules
spokesperson = person who is chosen to speak for a company and make press and TV comments
Rhian Lewis, a British woman aged 49, is the first Briton to get a bionic eye. A chip was implanted in the back of the retina, which allowed her to see for the first time in six years.
The woman started losing her eyesight when she was 5 years old. Now she can read the time of a clock, experience sunshine and even recognize her two 18-year old twins , which she hadn’t clearly seen for a few years.
The bionic eye works by gathering light and sending it to the brain, where it is turned into images.The chip has 15,000 light sensors that replace the cells in the retina. It is connected to a tiny computer that sits in the back of her ear. The revolutionaryinvention was manufactured by a Germany firm. Lewis is the first person outside of Germany to receive the chip.
The disease which was passed down to Lewis from her parents destroys the light cells in the retina. She became completely blind on one eye and could hardly see anything with her other eye. In her first interview after the successful operation she described the joy of being able to see again.
What Lewis first saw first were simply flashes of light. In the course of a few weeks, the brain learns to change those flashes into objects and shapes she can recognize. She can change contrast and brightness with a small gadget that she holds in her hand.
The operation, performed in an Oxford hospital, took about 6 hours. Surgeons are also amazed because for the first time they have been able to activate a part of the brain that hasn’t been working for some time.
The bionic eye is hope for thousands of people who suffer from losing their eyesight, especially when they become older.
activate = to make something work
amazed = very surprised
bionic = part of the body that is electronic
brain = part of your head that controls what you do, think and how you feel
brightness = being full of light or shining strongly
Briton = person who is a citizen of Great Britain
cell = the smallest building block of a person or animal
clearly = in every detail
completely = totally
connect = link
contrast = differences in light and dark
destroy = damage completely
disease = illness
especially = above all
experience = here: the feeling of being able to see
eyesight = being able to see
flash = light that shines brightly for a very short time
gadget = small tool that does something useful
gather = collect
hardly = almost nothing
image = picture
implant = put something into your body in an operation
invention = new machine or object
joy = feeling of great happiness
manufacture = produce
pass down = get from your parents or grandparents
perform = carry out
replace = put there instead of something else
receive = here: to have the chip implanted
recognize = to know what somebody or something is
retina = the back of the eye that collects light and sends signals to the brain
revolutionary = something very new and modern
sensor = object that reacts to light or heat
shape = form
simply =easy to understand
successful = here: something that worked
suffer = to have a disease, feel pain or not have something that other people have
The Zika virus is an infection that has been spreadingrapidly throughout Central and South America. Health experts think it may be the cause of thousands of babies who are born with brains that are not fullydeveloped.
The virus was first detected in monkeys in Uganda shortly after World War II. In 1954, the first human was infected by the Zika virus in Nigeria . Since then cases have been reported in Africa , Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands.
The symptoms of the disease are
pain in the joints
At the moment there is no cure for the disease and a vaccination has not yet been found.
The Zika virus may be the reason why babies are born with small heads. Their brain has not developed in the way it should. This can prove to be fatal if the brain cannot control the basic functions of a child’s life.
The Zika virus is spread by mosquitoes, that live in the tropical areas of Central and South America. They pass on the disease by biting people and drinking their blood. Up to now the Zika virus has not been considered to be a threat to global health. But last year it appeared in South America and spread rapidly across Brazil.
More than 20 countries have reported outbreaks of the virus. As many as four million people could be infected by the end of 2016. In El Salvador, the government has advised women not to become pregnant in the next three years.
Brazilian health authorities have stated that they are doing all they can to contain the virus. More and more money is being put into finding a vaccine for the disease.
The World Health Organisation says that the Zika virus could turn into a majorpandemic that could spread to other parts of the world. Health authorities advise people who live in infected areas to cover their bodies with long clothes, use insect repellents and shut doors and windows to keep insects out.
In today’s world viruses spread faster because of modern travel. Brazilian health experts say that the Zika virus may have entered the country through a traveller who came from Polynesia. Brazil’s authorities are concerned about the virus as it may affect the upcoming Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, which will be visited by millions of people.
advise = suggest
affect = to change something; influence something
appear = come up; to be seen; show itself
authorities = powerful organisation in the government that can make decisions about certain things
brain = organ inside your head that controls how you feel, think and the way you move
case = here: a person who has the disease
concerned = worried
consider = think, believe
contain = to keep in one place
cure = medicine that makes a sick person healthy again
detect = to find something that is hidden or difficult to see
develop = grow
disease = illness
fatal = deadly
fully = completely
global = worldwide
government = people who rule a country
infection = disease in your body that is passed on by a virus
insect repellent = substance that keeps insects away
joint = place where two bones are connected
major = here: important, very large
outbreak = when the disease suddenly appears
pandemic = a disease that spreads over a whole country or even the whole world
pass on = give from one person to another
Polynesia = region of the central Pacific Ocean with its many islands
pregnant = to have a baby inside your body
rapidly = very fast
rash = a lot of small red spots on the skin
spread = to move from one place to another
state = to say officially
symptom = a sign that something is wrong in your body
threat = danger
throughout = in all of
upcoming = something that will happen soon
vaccination = to give someone a vaccine to protect them from a disease
vaccine = a substance that has a weak form of a virus and protects people from the disease
The first Gulf War, or Operation Desert Storm as it was called, took place 25 years ago. On January 16 1991, cruise missiles and tons of bombs fell on Iraq’s capital, Baghdad , in an attempt to force dictator Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait, which he had invaded a few months earlier.
Saddam Hussein’s army, at that time the fourth largest in the world, was driven out of Kuwait after air bombardment that lasted over a month and a ground war of 4 days.
The United States led an international coalition force, which included 39 countries. In the course of 6 months 500 000 American troops were brought to Saudi Arabia, which also supported the west with air bases.
For the first time since the Vietnam War Americans used new weapons in combat, which showed their military strength . It was also the first time that a war was shown on live television, with CNN leading the way.
The decision to go to war with Iraq was made in the UN Security Council. All of its members agreed that they could not let Iraq get away with invading a neighbouring country. The Iraqi dictator claimed that Kuwait was pumping oil out of Iraqi oil fields.
The first Gulf War destroyed Iraqi combat lines and infrastructure. It was a one-sided battle in which Iraqi forces suffered many casualties. The goal of Operation Desert Storm was only to liberate Kuwait, not to march on to Baghdad and oust the Iraqi dictator. That happened 12 years later, when Saddam was still in power.
The American Defence Departmentestimated that the first Gulf War cost about 61 billion dollars. More than half was paid by Saudi Arabia and other nations in the region.
agree = to be of the same opinion
air base = place from which military airplanes can take off and land
air bombardment = to attack a place with bombs dropped from airplanes
attempt = try
battle = fight
billion = a thousand million
capital = the most important city in a country; where the government is
casualties = people hurt or killed in a war
claim = to say that something is true
coalition force = soldiers from many different countries fight together
combat = fighting
combat lines = roads that are needed to transport soldiers, food etc…
cruise missile = a rocket that is controlled by a computer; it can fly very low and carry powerful bombs
decision = choice you make after thinking about other possibilities
Defence Department = American government organisation that is in charge of the military
destroy = to damage something completely so that you cannot use it any more
drive out of = make someone leave
estimate = to calculate the cost of something
force = to make someone do something
forces = soldiers of a country’s army
get away with = to do something bad without being punished
goal = aim
ground war = war with fighting on the ground
infrastructure = the basic systems that a country needs, like roads, bridges, schools etc…
in the course of = after a period of …
include = to have in it
in power = here: head of the country, dictator
invade = to enter a country with an army and take control of it
lead = to be in the front position
liberate = to help a country to become free
one-sided = here: one side is much stronger than the other
oust = remove from power
Security Council = part of the United Nations that tries to keep peace and stop conflicts around the world; there are fifteen members in the Security Council
strength = how strong something is
support = help
troops = soldiers
weapon = object you use to fight, like a gun, knife or bomb
Costa Rica produces almost all of its power from renewable energy. The state electricityagency has stated that in 2015 the country produced 99% of its energy from renewable sources.
In the first two months of last year, the whole country operated on nothing but renewable energy. In the following months, 97% came from non-fossil fuels. There were 285 days without energy from fossil fuels.
According to the government, 80% of Costa Rica’s electricity is produced in hydro-power and geothermal plants. The Central American country profits from heavy rainfall and many rivers, which are the basis for producing electricity. Although last year was very dry, Costa Rica was still able to produce enough hydroelectric power. Geothermal energy comes from hot spots and active volcanoes which are spread across the country.
In the future, however, Costa Rica wants to become less dependent on water power and produce more energy from solar and wind power. The tropical country also has a hugebiomass potential which it can turn into energy.
The 4.5 million inhabitants of Costa Rica have profited from lower energy prices, because the country does not have to import that much oil and other fossil fuels. But the transportation sector still depends heavily on fossil fuels. Costa Rica wants to make transportation free of fossil fuels by electrifying railroads and introducing electric taxis and buses.
Through its energy policy Costa Rica has sent a signal to the whole world that switching completely to green energy is achievable if you try. The government has set an ambitiousgoal. It wants to become completely independent from fossil fuels by 2021.
according to = as said by …
achievable = something that can be done
agency = organisation
although = while
ambitious = something that is not easy to do and needs a lot of of trying in order to succeed
biomass = material form dead plants and animals that can be used for making energy
dependent = need something in order to continue working
goal = aim
electricity = energy that goes through wires and cables; it gives us light and heat and is used to operate machines
electrify = to make a machine work with electricity
fossil fuel = energy that comes from the material of dead animals and plants that lived millions of years ago
geothermal = from the heat inside the earth
government = the people who run a country
green energy = energy that is produced without using fossil fuels
heavy = strong
hot spot = place on the earth where it is very hot and there is volcanic activity
however = but
huge = very large
hydro power = producing energy from moving water
independent = free from
inhabitants = the people who live in a country
introduce = to start using
operate on = here: use
plant = here: building that produces electricity
policy = plan of action that the government uses
renewable = something that is used over and over again and replaces itself naturally
solar = from the sun
source = where something comes from
state = to say officially
switch = change to
transportation = system of moving people and products
Astronomers may have discovered a ninth planet, beyond Pluto, in our solar system. Planet Nine, as it is called, may have ten times the mass of the earth and four times the size. The planet, which has not yet been detected by telescopes, may take up 20,000 years to orbit the sun.
The closest the new planet comes to the sun may be about 15 times the distance of Pluto. Then it heads out to a distance of 93 billion miles, or 75 times farther than the dwarf planet. Scientists are hoping to detect it when it comes closer to earth. Today’s telescopes are so strong that the planet should be able to be seen within the next few years.
Astronomers made the discovery when they saw small objects that were aligned in a row in the Kuiper Belt, a region that containscountless objects that orbit the sun near Pluto. This meant that they might be pulled towards another , far larger object, that couldn’t be seen.
The former planet Pluto is also thought to be one of the Kuiper Belt objects which have unusual orbits, unlike the orbits of the other planets. Planet Nine may be an object that was knocked out of the solar system when it was created.
For a long time scientists and astronomers have wondered if there were any planets outside the orbit of Pluto. Ironically, the astronomers who discovered the possible existence of Planet Nine are the same who degraded Pluto to a dwarf planet a few years ago.
align = to put things in a straight line
astronomer = person who studies the stars and planets
contain = to have in it
countless = so many that you cannot count them
create = make
billion = a thousand million
degrade = here: to lower the status from planet to dwarf planet
detect = discover something that is not easy to see
discover = to find something for the first time
distance = the space between two things
dwarf planet = object that goes around the sun but is smaller than a planet
existence = the situation that something exists
former = in the past
head out = move away
ironically = something that is the opposite of what you would expect
knock out = hit
orbit = to move around
scientist = person who is trained in science and works in a lab
size = how big something is
solar system = the sun and the planets that go around it
telescope = object that looks like a tube and is used for making faraway things look larger
The British government is planning to make the ocean around Ascension Island a marine reserve. The island, located in the middle of the Atlantic ocean, is a British overseas territory.
The new reserve will be created with the help of the Blue Marine Foundation and the Bacon Foundation, which has promised to donate £300, 000 to set up the natural habitat.
The ocean reserve is planned to be the size of the UK itself. Satellites and patrol ships will monitor activities around Ascension Island. They will also watch out for illegal fishing of endangered species. Tuna fishing will be regulated but not banned , because island inhabitantsdepend on tuna fishing for a living and because the popular fish is in high demand all over the world.
The sea around Ascension Island is home of the world’s largest population of green turtles, as well as large marlin and sea birds.
When the new marine reserve goes into operation in 2017, a total of 2% of the world’s ocean’s will be under observation. Scientists claim that for all species to survive and to enlargen the global fish population about 30% of the world’s waters must be monitored.
Other marine reserves include Palau in the northern Pacific, the Easter Islands and Pitcairn in the southern Pacific.
claim = to say that something is true
create = make
depend on = need very much
donate = give money to help an organization
endangered species = animal or plant that might stop existing because there are not many of them left
enlargen = make bigger
foundation =organization that collects money for a special event or special purpose
global = worldwide
goes into operation = starts working
government = the people who rule a country
habitat = place where plants and animals live naturally
high demand = when many people want to buy a product
illegal = against the law
include = also have in it
inhabitants = the people who live there
located = can be found
marine reserve = part of the ocean in which fish and other animals are protected and can live safely
marlin =large sea fish with a long sharp nose
monitor = watch carefully
patrol ship = ship that moves around to see if there is any danger or if anything unusual is happening
population = here: group of animals
overseas territory = here: land in another part of the world that belongs to the United Kingdom
popular = liked by many people
regulate = control, limit
settlement = small town
size = how big something is
species = group of animals or plants that are like each other and can reproduce
survive = live on after a dangerous situation
under observation = when something is closely watched
What were the worst passwords of last year? According toSplashData , a password managing company, the most common passwords were also the ones that were most insecure. At the top of the list were “123456” and “password”. Both came in top for the second time in a row.
The company, which has now released the Worst Password List for a few years, used over 2 million passwords that were leaked to them.
6 of the most common passwords only consisted of numbers. Among other passwords that are popular were”qwerty” (the letters are next to each other on the keyboard) , “football” , “welcome” and words from popular films like “starwars”.
SplashData says that users have been trying to make passwords longer, but if there is a simple pattern behind it, it doesn’t really help. On the other side, only 3% of internet users used the 25 worst passwords. More and more people care about password security.
The company warns that choosing bad passwords endangers your personal data and the risk of someone hacking into your computer rises.
According to Splashdata there are a few things to consider when you choose a password:
Use a mix of numbers, letters (upper and lower case) and special characters.
Secure passwords should have a length of at least 12 characters.
Do not use the same password for all your internet accounts.
Try using a tool to manage the passwords that you have.
Do not use birthday dates or words that are recognised easily.
Having good passwords is becoming more and more necessary because cyberattacks are on the rise. Last year almost 500 million data records around the world were hacked.
Internet security experts are calling for a new method to access websites, for example using your mobile phone or another other form of identification.
access = getting into a website
according to = as said by
account = you need it when you use certain websites ; you have to log in with a username and a password
care = here: think about
common =popular, much-liked
consider = think about
consist = to have in them
cyberattack = trying to harm a computer or a whole network
data = information
data records = information stored on a computer
endanger = put in danger
hack =to get into a person’s computer system illegally and use the information that is there
identification = document or information that shows who you are
in a row = one after another, without a pause
insecure = not safe to use
keyboard = set of keys on a computer you use to type in information
leak = to give secret information to someone
length = how long something is
lower case = letters that are not written as capitals
necessary = needed, very important
pattern = design that is always the same
recognise = know something because you have seen it before
Minecraft, a video game with which you can build virtual worlds, will be expanded to classroom use. Microsoft bought the game from its Swedish creator for 2.5 billion dollars. Now, the software wants to offer schools a special educational version.
MinecraftEdu is an add-on to the game, that was specially created by teachers for classroom use. While thousands of classes around the world are already using Minecraft in their lessons, Microsoft wants to make it easier for schools to use the software.
Minecraft is a game that can be used in many subjects, including maths, science and geography. Microsoft wants to add new features to the educational version , for example letting students take snapshots and putting them into an online diary. The new version will allow children to download the game at home without having to pay extra for it. Microsoft is expected to charge students and teachers about 5 dollars a year to use the game in school and at home.
According to Microsoft , Minecraft has 100 million players around the world. It has become one of the best-selling games of all times. Pupils can create their own virtual worlds with the help of special building blocks. Experts say that Minecraft helps stimulate the imagination of children in the classroom. In addition, teachers around the world create new content and share them with others, so that the Minecraftcommunity keeps growing.
Microsoft plans to make the game available to pupils and students of all ages, from elementary school through to colleges. The company plans to add Minecraft to an Office 365 account, so that it can also sell more of its Office software. Teachers can enrol in courses to learn the game.