NASA scientists have created a new software program that can show how cities in coastal regions are endangered by flooding and sea level rise caused by global warming. The simulation shows how 300 coastal cities will be affected in the next century.
The software was developed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It calculates which ice sheets and glaciers are melting and how the additional water influences coastal regions. It takes into consideration the rotation of the Earth as well as the influence of gravity. The results are surprising. Sea levels will actually decrease around cities closer to ice masses, while the biggest rises will occur through ice caps that are farther away.
New York, for example, will be most affected by melting ice caps in northeastern Greenland. Sydney, on the other hand, will actually be influenced by parts of Antarctica that are far away from Australia’s city.
The software aims at helping city planners prepare for sea level changes within the next few decades and how to keep ocean water out.
A climate report published this week shows that, since 1900, global sea levels have risen by about 20 cm, with half of the rise occurring in the last 25 years. Projections show that by 2100 ocean levels will rise by an average of 1 metre, however, the rise will not affect all coastal areas in the same way.
- actually = in fact
- additional = extra
- affect = change
- aim = here: what it wants to do and who it wants to help
- average = here: evenly spread out across all oceans
- calculate = here: find out how much something will change by using numbers
- century = a hundred years
- coastal = where land meets the sea
- decade = ten years
- decrease = go down
- develop = create , make
- endangered = to be in danger
- flooding = when land becomes covered with water
- glacier = very large mass of ice which moves down a valley
- global = worldwide
- global warming = the increase in the world’s temperatures by higher amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
- gravity = force or power that causes something to fall to the ground and stay there
- ice cap = large mass of ice
- influence = change
- NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration = American space agency
- occur = happen
- prepare = get ready for something
- projection = calculation about what something will be in the future based on the information we have now
- publish = to make information for everyone to see
- rise = to go up
- rotation = the Earth’s spin around its own axis
- sea level = the average height of the sea
- scientist = a person who is trained in science and works in a lab
- simulation = here: software that shows how something could happen in the future
- take into consideration = here: to use certain factors when you run the programme