World’s Largest Flooded Cave Discovered in Mexico

In one of the world’s biggest underwater discoveries, Mexican divers have found a flooded cave near Tulum, a beach resort on the Yucatan peninsula. The cave is part of the Sac Actun cave system, which now measures a total length of 347 km.

The discovery was made by members of Gran Acuifero Mayaa, a  project dedicated to the study and preservation of underground water systems in Yucatan. After a few months of exploring divers found an underwater link between two existing caves. After examining the flooded area divers found rocks and stones with ancient markings, grave sites and remains of human bones.

The flooded cave may be connected with the ancient Maya civilisation and could help us understand the Mayan culture. The Yucatan peninsula is full of monuments and ancient Mayan sites.

Mayan cities and temples were built over sinkholes, so-called cenotes. They were natural pits that were formed by the collapse of limestone, revealing subterranean rivers.

 

Flooded cave
Flooded cave – Image: Blueway

Words

  • ancient = very old
  • collapse = when something suddenly falls down or apart
  • connect = to join together
  • dedicated = to work on something very hard
  • discovery = to find something new for the first time
  • diver = person who swims or works under water  using special equipment that helps them breathe
  • examine = to look at something very closely
  • flooded cave = natural hole in the earth that is full of water
  • grave site = place where people are buried
  • length = how long something is
  • limestone = type of rock that lets water through and has calcium in it
  • link = connection
  • measure = how large something is
  • peninsula = piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides
  • pit = hole in the ground
  • preservation = to try to keep something in its original state
  • remains = what is left over from a human body
  • resort = town where people spend their holidays
  • reveal = to show something that you didn’t see before
  • sinkhole = a hole in the ground caused when the surface collapses

 

Da Vinci Painting Sells For Almost 500 Million

Leonardo da Vinci’s portrait of Christ was sold for $450 million at an art auction at Christie’s  in New York. It was more than double the price of any art object ever sold.

The painting, Salvator Mundi,  is one of the rare masterpieces of the Renaissance painter. Created at around 1500 it is one of 20 da Vinci paintings still in private possession.

Salvator Mundi was once owned by King Charles I  of England in the middle of the 17th century.  The painting was believed to have been destroyed until it resurfaced in 1900.  In England, it was sold for a mere $125  because art experts at the time thought it was a worthless copy, either done by one of da Vinci’s followers or students. Even today, the painting’s authenticity is still in doubt.

After being restored several times, a Russian billionaire bought the painting in 2013. The new owner intends to remain anonymous.

The oil painting shows the upper body of Jesus Christ as the world’s saviour. In one hand he holds a glass sphere in, while the other hand is raised in blessing.

Currently, there is only one da Vinci in the United States. Ginevra de’ Benci can be observed in public at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

 

Da Vinci's masterpiece "Salvator Mundi"
Da Vinci’s masterpiece “Salvator Mundi”

Words

  • anonymous = not known by name
  • auction = a public meeting where paintings and other things are sold to the person who offers the most money
  • authenticity = the quality of being real or true
  • billionaire = person who has one thousand million dollars, euros etc..
  • in blessing = with the help or protection from God
  • century = a hundred years
  • Christie’s = famous auction house in New York
  • currently = now, at the moment
  • destroy = to damage completely so that you no longer can use it
  • in doubt = here: it may not be real
  • in public = where everyone can see it
  • intend = want to be
  • masterpiece = a work of art that is of very high quality or the best of a famous artist
  • mere = only
  • observe = see something
  • own = possess; if something belongs to you
  • possession = something that belongs to you
  • raise = hold up
  • rare = not found very often
  • Renaissance = period of time in Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries, when art, literature and scientific ideas became very important
  • restore = repair, so that it appears like it once was
  • resurface = to appear again after being lost or missing for some time
  • saviour =  a person who saves someone in a dangerous situation – here: Jesus Christ
  • sphere = shape of a ball
  • worthless = without any value , cheap

Sidewalk Toronto – City of the Future in Canada

Sidewalk Labs, a Google company, has announced  plans to build a futuristic city in Toronto, Canada. The new urban area, called Sidewalk Toronto, aims at turning the waterfront of Lake Ontario into a playground for city development and a testing site  for new technologies.

The project wants to make cities cheaper, healthier and even more exciting to live in .  The new city will offer its residents ultra-fast WiFi connections, lanes for self-driving cars and sustainable energy sources.  Thousands of sensors will report pollution and noise levels, as well as monitor traffic and levels of carbon monoxide.

Planners of Sidewalk Toronto want to find new solutions for  overpopulation, waste management , traffic , pollution and other urban problems. Several companies have said that they will make their services  available to the new city. 

Planners estimate that the project will cost around 1 billion dollars. However, it will also offer tens of thousands of people a place to live, work  and have fun. Eventually, similar projects may spread to other parts of the world, helping to build smarter and greener  cities.

Google has also announced that it plans to move its Canadian headquarters to Sidewalk Toronto.

 

 

 

Skyline of Toronto from Lake Ontario
Skyline of Toronto from Lake Ontario – Image: George Socka

Words

  • aim = wants to , plans to
  • announce = to officially say something in public
  • available = here: something that people can use
  • carbon monoxide = poisonous gas that produces carbon when it is burned
  • development = to become bigger, more modern and advanced
  • estimate = think about how much something will cost
  • eventually = as time goes on, slowly
  • futuristic = something  that looks unusual and very modern
  • headquarters = the main building or offices used by a large company
  • however =  but
  • lane = one of two or many areas on the road that keeps cars apart
  • monitor = watch, observe
  • overpopulation = too many people live on a small area of land
  • resident = here: a person  who lives in a city
  • services = work or help that a company gives you
  • similar = almost the same
  • solution = way of dealing with a problem
  • spread = move to another place
  • sustainable = something that can be used without causing danger to the environment or nature
  • urban = about a city
  • waste management = way of getting rid of unwanted materials and dirty water
  • waterfront = part of a city or town that is next to the sea or lake
  • WiFi connection = connecting computers and other machines to the Internet by using radio signals