Charles Manson, the hippie leader who shocked the world in the 1960s, died at the age of 83. Manson, who has had health problems recently, was serving a life-sentence in a Californian prison.
Charles Manson was the charismatic leader of a group known for murdering seven people in Los Angeles in 1969. Among them was Sharon Tate, a rising Hollywood star and wife of director Roman Polanski. Miss Tate was pregnant at the time she was stabbed to death 16 times. Although Manson was not at the scene of the crimes he ordered his followers to commit the murders.
Manson and his cult members roamed neighbourhoods looting stores and committing random murders. His racist views triggeredwidespread hate against Black Americans. The clan leader was a symbol of free-love and drug-driven California in the late 1960s.
In 1971, Manson and four of his followers were sentenced to death in the gas chamber. The sentences were reduced to life imprisonment when California’s Supreme Courtabolished the death penalty in 1972.
In his youth, Charles Manson dreamed of becoming a rock star but was unsuccessful in his attempts at getting a record contract. This turned into hate against everything that represented the establishment and corporate America. His followers believed in everything he said and committed crimes on his behalf.
abolish = ban, not allow
although = while
attempt = try
charismatic = having the natural talent to attract people and make them like and admire you
commit = carry out
corporate America = here: the big businesses and companies that have a lot of power and can also make political decisions
death penalty = when the state legally kills someone who has committed a crime
drug-driven = here: a time when taking drugs was very common
establishment = group of people who have a lot of power and influence and are often against changes or new ideas
hippie = someone in the 1960s who wore unusual clothes , had long hair and took drugs for pleasure
life imprisonment = being in prison for your whole life
life-sentence = to be in prison your whole life
loot = to steal things from shops that were destroyed
on his behalf = in his name; for him
pregnant = to expect a baby
racist = someone who believes that people of their own race are better than others; they treat them unfairly and sometimes violently
random = without a plan or pattern
reduce = to make something less
recently = a short time ago
record contract = to make music for a company
represent = to stand for something
rising = here: becoming more successful
roam = walk around without a clear direction or knowing what you want to do
sentence = a punishment that a judge gives you for committing a crime
serve = to spend time in prison
stab to death = to kill someone with a knife
Supreme Court = the highest court in the state
trigger = start
unsuccessful = when something does not work out the way you want it to
The remains of Australia’s oldest aboriginal man, who died about 42,000 years ago, has been returned to his originalburial ground in New South Wales. For years, he had been at a university in Canberra for study purposes.
The skeleton was discovered in 1974 in a dry salt lake in Mungo National Park about 800 km west of Sydney. The remains were taken to the University of Canberra to be studied. At the time, the Aborigines protested heavily against removing the remains from their original burial grounds.They have been fighting for decades to bring the skeleton, known as Mungo Man, back home.
Mungo Man was probably a hunter-gatherer, who died at the age of 50. Scientists think that the man probably suffered from arthritis. He was found lying on his back with his hands crossed in his lap. His limbs were stretched out and his body was covered with red ochre, which came from some 200 km away.
Aborigines celebrated the return of the remains in a traditional ceremony with green gum leaves burned over a small fire. In an officialstatement, the university apologized for the pain they have caused by not letting the ancient human rest in peace.
aboriginal = connected to someone who has lived in a place or country from the earliest times
Aborigines = someone who belongs to the race of people who have lived in Australia from the earliest times
apologize = to say you are sorry about something
arthritis = disease that causes bones and flexible parts of your body to become painful and swollen
burial ground = place where a person is laid to rest after they have died
cause = create
celebrate = to show that an event is important by doing something special
ceremony = important social or religious event
decade = ten years
discover = to find for the first time
gum leaves = leaves from a gum tree; they produce a strong smelling oil that is used in medicine
heavily = very much; strongly
hunter-gatherer = person who lived by hunting animals and looking for plants that could be eaten
lap = the upper part of your legs when you are sitting down
limbs = arms and legs
ochre = red-yellowish earth
official statement = here: the university announced something in public
original = here: for the first time
remains = the body or skeleton of someone who has died
remove = bring away from the original place
scientist = person who is trained in science and works in a lab
skeleton = structure of all the bones in the human body
study purposes = when something is looked at or examined closely by scientists and experts
A Swedish publicationreleasedrecently says that having a dog could not only make your life more worthwhile but actually save it. Apart from being great companions, especially for single individuals, dog ownership may lengthen your life. The survey studied Swedish individuals between 40 and 80 over a 12-year period.
The study found out that owning a dog reduces the risk of cardiovasculardiseases by almost a third. The risk of suffering a heart attack is 11% lower compared to singles without a dog. People who owned hunting dogs, like terriers and retrievers, benefited the most.
Dog owners are more active because they exercise with their dogs. Extensivephysical activityreduces the risk of heart diseases, strengthens the immune system and makes life less stressful. It also results in lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Dogs are increasingly used as a therapy after a severeillness. An American study shows that patients who have undergonesurgeryrecovered more quickly if they had contact with dogs.
On the other side dogs have a calming effect on people and are important company for those living alone. Loneliness and lack of social interaction is one of the biggest problems of older people. Petting a dog, for example, has proven to be helpful to those suffering from depression. In addition, dogs are especially helpful in helping and guidingdisabled and blind people.
apart from = besides; in addition to
benefit = to have advantages
blood pressure = the force with which blood travels through your body
calming = relaxed and quiet
cardiovascular disease = illness connected with the heart and blood moving through your body
cholesterol = chemical substance in your blood; too much of it may cause heart disease
company = when you are with someone else and not alone
compare =to look at two things and show how much the same or different they are
companion = friend
depression = the feeling of sadness that makes you think there is no hope for the future
disabled = someone who cannot use parts of their body properly
especially = above all
exercise = physical activity that makes you stronger and keeps you healthy
extensive = a lot ; much
guide = lead to a place
heart attack = when your heart suddenly stops beating
heart disease = illness related to your heart
illness = disease
immune system = system by which your body protects itself against diseases
in addition = also
increasingly = more and more
lack = not enough of …
lengthen = make longer
loneliness = being alone
ownership = having or possessing something
patient = someone who receives medical treatment in a hospital or at a doctor’s
pet = to touch or move your hand softly over an animal
publication = when you make something known to the public
recently = a short time ago
recover = to get better after you have been ill for some time
reduce = lower
release = to publish
severe = bad
social interaction = when two or more people do things together
strengthen = to make stronger
survey = a set of questions you ask a larger number of people about a certain topic
therapy = treatment or an illness after a long period of time
worthwhile = if something is important or useful; you can profit from something
The social networking service Twitter has increased the number of characters that can be used for a single tweet to 280. The new limit will apply to English and other languages that use a Roman alphabet. Languages, such as Chinese, Japanese or Korean, are not affected by the change because users can say more with fewer characters.
Twitter says that the change has been made to give people more opportunity to say what they think and express their opinions without making texts shorter or using bad grammar. More space makes it easier to put your thoughts in writing.
Twitter decided to implement the change after a month of intensive testing .Those who tested the new character limit said it was good because they were able to express themselves in a better way.
In the first few days after the new rule took effect, many people used up the full 280 character limit. A spokesperson said that, after a few days, everything had become normal again. Only five percent of all tweets exceeded the old 140 character limit, probably because most users were used to it.
Twitter’s 140-character limit goes back to the days when the company was founded in 2006. Back then, the limit for sending SMS text messages was 140 characters and Twitter based the new service on that limit. Texting today is considered out of date and not used that much anymore.
affect = here: to do something that produces a change
apply = affect; to be used for
character = letter, number or sign used in an alphabet
considered = thought to be …
exceed = to be more than …
express = tell or show what you think or feel
found – founded = here: to start a new company
implement = here: to make changes
increase = to go up
intensive = here: a lot of
limit = here: the number of characters you are allowed to use
opinion = what you think about something
opportunity = chance
out of date = not useful, because something more modern has taken its place
Roman alphabet = alphabet used in English and other European languages
spokesperson = someone who speaks for a company and makes announcements in public
take effect = to start to produce results after something has changed
Sidewalk Labs, a Google company, has announced plans to build a futuristic city in Toronto, Canada. The new urban area, called Sidewalk Toronto, aims at turning the waterfront of Lake Ontario into a playground for city developmentand a testing site for new technologies.
The project wants to make cities cheaper, healthier and even more exciting to live in . The new city will offer its residents ultra-fast WiFi connections, lanes for self-driving cars and sustainableenergy sources. Thousands of sensors will report pollution and noise levels, as well as monitor traffic and levels of carbon monoxide.
Planners of Sidewalk Toronto want to find new solutions for overpopulation, waste management , traffic , pollution and other urban problems. Several companies have said that they will make their services available to the new city.
Planners estimate that the project will cost around 1 billion dollars. However, it will also offer tens of thousands of people a place to live, work and have fun. Eventually, similar projects may spread to other parts of the world, helping to build smarter and greener cities.
Google has also announced that it plans to move its Canadian headquarters to Sidewalk Toronto.
aim = wants to , plans to
announce = to officially say something in public
available = here: something that people can use
carbon monoxide = poisonous gas that produces carbon when it is burned
development = to become bigger, more modern and advanced
estimate = think about how much something will cost
eventually = as time goes on, slowly
futuristic = something that looks unusual and very modern
headquarters = the main building or offices used by a large company
however = but
lane = one of two or many areas on the road that keeps cars apart
monitor = watch, observe
overpopulation = too many people live on a small area of land
resident = here: a person who lives in a city
services = work or help that a company gives you
similar = almost the same
solution = way of dealing with a problem
spread = move to another place
sustainable = something that can be used without causing danger to the environment or nature
urban = about a city
waste management = way of getting rid of unwanted materials and dirty water
waterfront = part of a city or town that is next to the sea or lake
WiFi connection = connecting computers and other machines to the Internet by using radio signals
Estonia is a small Baltic state with a population of 1.3 million. Despite its size it is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world and has been creating a digital society since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
In Estonia, citizens are allowed to do most things online. Every inhabitant has a uniqueID card that they use for a number of purposes.They can file tax returns, get medical prescriptions and manage their health records online. They can pay for a parking ticket via mobile phone and don’t have to go to a registration office when a child is born. Parents can check their children’s grades and communicate with teachers. For many years Estonians have been able to vote online.
In 2014 the small Baltic country started a new digital initiative. It allows non-citizens to become digital residents for 100 euros. The government wants to bring qualified people to the country because the working population is steadily decreasing. The country desperately needs new programmers, web developers and media experts. Up to now 20 000 people from other countries have applied for digital citizenship.
Many countries, among them Finland and Japan are trying to copy Estonia’s digital society. However, authoritiespoint out that the country’s smallness is an advantage. Such a system may not work very well in larger countries with millions of people.
advanced = very modern
advantage = here: something that helps you to be successful
apply = to make a request
authorities = the people who are in charge of a government organisation or department
Baltic = region in the northeastern part of Europe
citizen = person who lives in a country and has rights there
collapse = breakdown , end
create = make
decrease = go down
desperately = very much
despite = even though
file tax returns = here: to send information on how much you have earned to the local government; it then tells you how much tax you have to pay
government = the people who rule a country
health records = information about your health
however = but
ID card = small plastic card that has information about a person
inhabitant = a person who lives in a country
initiative = a new plan
point out = to show something that is important
population = the number of people living in a country
prescription = a piece of paper on which the doctor writes down what medicine a sick person should take
purpose = what something is needed for
qualified = with special skills and talents
registration office = place where you have report to when a baby is born or someone dies
resident = a person who officially lives in a country
society = people in general and the way they live and work together
size =how large the country is
smallness = not large in size
Soviet Union = largest Communist country that existed between 1922 and 1991
Easter Island , or Rapa Nui as the natives call themselves , belongs to the remotest places on earth. The Chilean island, famous for its carved statues, is located in the middle of the southern Pacific Ocean.
For decades, scientists have been wondering how the natives got to the island before the first Europeans came in 1722. Most experts think that the first settlers came to Easter Island at around 1200 A.D. , probably on small boats crisscrossing the Pacific Ocean.
Other anthropologists have been trying to find out if the natives have any connections to early South Americans, three thousand kilometres away. Latest research now claims that the Easter Islanders were, in fact, more isolated than previously thought.
Scientists have been examining the skeletons and bones of five people that go back hundreds of years. However, they have found no evidence that suggests they have might have ancestors in South America.
The first theory of South American ancestry came up when Thor Heyerdahl saw sweet potatoes when he arrived there in the 1950s. He also found people using fishing tools that South Americans also used. Scientists at that time thought the people of the Easter Islands may have sailed to South America and back again some time before the Europeans came.
ancestor = a member of your family who lived a long time ago
anthropologist = a person who studies people , their cultures and where they come from
carved = to cut an object with a knife
claim = to say that something is true even if you cannot prove it
Chilean = from Chile
crisscross = to travel many times back and forth without a certain pattern ; zigzag
decade = ten years
evidence = facts that clearly show that something is true or exists
examine = to look very closely at an object
however = but
isolated = here: to be alone and far away from others
located = can be found
native = a person who was born in a country or place
previously = earlier
remote = very far away from civilisation
research = the study of a subject in order to find out new facts
sail = the wind brings you somewhere on a boat
scientist = a person who is trained in science and works in a lab
settler = a person who goes to live in a place where not many people have lived before
sweet potato = a vegetable that looks like a red potato ,is yellow inside and tastes sweet
Experts from the World Health Organisation say that childhood obesity has risentenfold in the last four decades and is at its highest rate since 1975.
Worldwide obesity rates have increased from less than 1% in 1975 to about 7% today. A total of 120 million children are considered to be obese, boys more than girls. The researchersexamineddata that tracked the height and weight of over 30 million 5 to 19 year-olds in the last 40 years.
Obesity at a young age can lead to heart disease and diabetes as well as social problems like bullying and teasing . It also can affect the progress of pupils at school. Apart from that, the effects of childhood obesity are estimated to cost the world’s health care systems over $1 trillion in the next ten years.
While the increase in childhood obesity rates in developed countries in Europe and North America has slowed down , it is still at a very high rate. Children in middle and higher class areas are especially at risk because families have more money to buy unhealthy food.
Experts suggest that countries in which childhood obesity is increasing should think about measures like introducing a tax on sugary drinks or unhealthy food. Schools should offer healthier products in their canteens and better labelling could help show consumers how much sugar, fat and salt products have.
On the other side, many children in poor countries remain underweight and malnourished. Countries with the highest number of underweight children include India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. In southern Asia about 25% of all children are thought to be underweight.
The WHO claims that if the trend continues there will soon be more obese than underweight children in our world.
affect = change
apart from … = also
bullying = someone who uses their strength or power to frighten or hurt someone who is weaker
canteen = place at school where students get a meal or other food
claim = to say that something is true even if you do not have the facts to prove it
considered = people think that
examine = look at information very closely
data = information
decade = ten years
developed countries = rich countries in the world
diabetes = serious illness in which there is too much sugar in your blood
especially = above all
estimate = guess how high something is by looking at the information you have
height = how tall a person is
increase = to go up
labelling = information on a product
malnourished = if you don’t have enough food to eat
measure = action that the government takes
obesity = when someone is very fat in an unhealthy way
offer = give, provide
remain = stay
researcher = person who studies a topic in order to find out more about it
rise – rose – risen = to go up
tax = money you must pay to the government for products you buy
tenfold = ten times as much
track = to look at information about something over a certain period of time
trillion = 1,000 000 000 000 = one thousand billion
weight = how heavy a person is
World Health Organisation (WHO) = international organisation that helps improve health around the world by giving medicine and providing information about diseases
Miwa Sado is a Japanese journalist who died in 2013 after working too hard. Her case became public this week after labour inspectors publisheda detailed report.
The journalist worked 160 hours of overtime a month and then died of heart failure. She was working for Japan’s public broadcaster NHK and at the time of her death was gathering information on a Tokyo election .
The death of Sado is expected to make the Japanese government more aware of the health risks involved in working too much. According to a survey, about one in five workers risk a critical health condition because of too much work . Now the government wants to limitovertime to a maximum of 100 hours a month and fine companies that do not comply.
In another case that became known, 24-year old Matsuri Takahashi, killed herself in 2015 after suffering from stress and working long hours for a a Japanese advertisingagency.
Japanese employees , on average, work more hours than anywhere else in the western world. They also consume only a third of the holidays they are entitled to. Many Japanese work hard in order to show that they are loyal to their company.
In 2016, two thousand Japanese workers killed themselves due to stress and overwork. Many other died from stress-related diseases, suffering from heart attacks and high blood pressure. The Japanese refer to such work-related deaths as karoshi.
according to = as reported by
advertising agency = company that designs ads for other companies
aware = when you know that a situation exists
blood pressure = the power with which blood flows through your body
case = here: what happened to her
comply = follow the rules and laws
consume = use up ; spend
critical = dangerous
due to = because of
election = when people vote to choose someone for an official position
employee = person who works for a company
entitled = the right to have something
fine = money that you have to pay as punishment
gather = collect
government = the people who rule the country
heart failure = when your heart stops beating
labour inspector = a person who checks to see if companies obey the rules and the law
limit = here: not allow more than a certain number
loyal = here: to show that you are connected to a company
overtime = time that you spend working in addition to your normal working hours
public = known about by everyone
public broadcaster = TV company that belongs to the state
publish = to print something so that everyone can read it
refer = call
stress-related = coming from stress
survey = set of questions that you ask many people in order to find out what they think about a topic
The Saudi Arabian government has announced that the country will start allowing women to drive cars. The new law will be in effect starting in June 2018. At the moment, Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that does not let women drive a car. The driving ban has become a symbol of oppression in the kingdom.
In the past Saudi women have had to organize drivers to take them to places in everyday life. If caught driving they risked being arrested and were sometimes even punished. Women were not even allowed to have a driving licence.
Countries around the world welcomed the step taken by Saudi king Salman ibn Abd al-Aziz. Many human rights groups have been fighting for women’s rights , including the right to drive, for years.
In the last few years, the Middle Eastern kingdom has been slowly granting women more rights in an attempt to open up to Western society. In 2015 , women, for the first time were allowed to vote and be candidates in local elections. Recently, the government announced that girls would be allowed to do sports and take part in physical education lessons in school.
Still, Saudi Arabian society is deeply conservative. Women still need a man’s permission to do certain things, including marrying or going abroad. Those who oppose the new law say that it would violate the sharia.
Saudi leaders hope that lifting the driving ban will let women take on a more more active role in the country’s booming economy.
announce = to say something officially, in public
arrest = to take a person to the police station because they have done something wrong
attempt = try
ban = to forbid something
booming = when the economy increases and businesses are very successful
deeply = very much
driving licence = document that says you have the right to drive
government = the people who rule a country
grant = give, award
human rights group = group of people who want everyone to have basic rights, like the right to vote or the right to speak freely
including = also
in effect = here: to start being a law
kingdom = country ruled by a king or queen
lift = remove
local election = when you choose a person to have an official job in a city or town
oppose = to be against something
oppression = to treat someone or a group of people in a bad way and not let them have the same rights as others
permission = to be officially allowed to do something
physical education = sports taught in school as a subject
sharia = a system of religious laws followed by Muslims