In an attempt to reduce the number of accidents and make climbing safer, Nepal has banned solo mountaineers from climbing Mount Everest and other peaks. In addition, beginning in January 2018, all foreign climbers will need a guide. The new law also prohibits blind and double amputee climbers from trying to reach the top peaks.
More than 200 people have died in an attempt to reach Mount Everest, the world’s highest mountain, since 1920. The majority of deaths have occurred within the last 40 years. Recently, an 85-year-old mountaineer died in an attempt to be the oldest human to reachthe top of MountEverest. Two Europeans died while making a solo climb last spring.
Although mountaineers die for a number of reasons, almost every fifth death is caused by acute mountain sickness. Authorities have announced that they will checkmedical certificates of climbers to see if they are physically capable of sucha demandingtask.
In addition to more safety, Nepalese authoritieshope that the new law will createmore jobs for mountain guides in the country. The government will also give Everest climbing certificates to high altitude guides and workers hired by foreign climbers.
Local citizens have welcomed the new law, but some officials fear that banning physically handicapped people from climbing could get them into conflict with human rights organisations.
According to statistics, 4,800 climbers have reached the top of Mount Everest since Tenzing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hillary’s historic climb in 1953.
according to = as reported by …
acute = an illness that comes very quickly
although = while
announce = to say officially
attempt = try to do something
authorities = organisation in a government that controls and decides certain things
ban = stop; forbid
capable = able
create = make
demanding task = activity that is very difficult to do
double amputee = someone who has lost both legs or both arms
foreign= from another country
guide = a person who shows you the way
high altitude = very high place
hire = to pay money to a person for a job they do
historic = when something important happened in history
human rights organisation = organisation in which people fight for the basic rights that everyone should have, like the right to vote or freedom of the press
in addition = also
law = rule, regulation
local citizen= person who lives in the region
majority = most of
medical certificate = piece of paper you get from a doctor or hospital that shows you are fit to do something
mountaineer = person who climbs high mountains in their free time
occur = happen
official = person who is in a high position in an organisation
peak = the highest part of a mountain
physically handicapped = person who cannot use parts of their body because of an accident or illness
Boxing Day, the 26th of December, has become a traditional day of sports in the UK, with many events taking place all across the country.
The day got its name from a time when many upper-class families gave boxes of gifts to poor people who had to work at Christmas while everybody else was celebrating. Boxing Day is celebrated in many Commonwealth countries.
The first important sports event on Boxing Day took place back in 1860 when two of the oldest football clubs in England played against each other. Today the Englisch Premier Leagueschedules a full round of matches on this Christmas holiday. In many cases, teams that are geographically close to each other play on Boxing Day so that fans do not have that far to travel.
While most European football leagues take a winter break, sometimes for several weeks, English football continues between Christmas and New Year.
The holiday schedule is welcomed by many football fans, but there are criticshowever who say that the Christmas season is a time when everybody should be at home with their families. Some managerspoint out that the season is very long and major teams need a break for players to recover from injuries.
Football is not the only popular sport that is played on Boxing Day. Horse racing and rugby have also seen regular sports events on the second day of Christmas. Traditional fox hunting is opposed by more and more Britons. In addition, Boxing Day has become one of the strongest betting days of the year.
betting = when people risk money on the results of games or future events
break = pause; a time during which you have no games
celebrate = to have fun or do something special
Commonwealth = group of about 50 countries that were once a part of the British Empire
critics = people who think that certain things are not good
everybody else = all the other people
gift = present
however = but
in addition = also
injury = when a part of your body gets hurt
major = important
manager = someone who is in charge of and coaches a football team
oppose = to be against
point out = to say something that is important for you
Premier League = the 20 best football teams of England an Wales which play against each other
recover = to get better
schedule = to plan something for a certain time
traditional = something that has existed for a long time
UK = United Kingdom
welcome = to be glad that something happens
winter break = time during which teams do not play because it is too cold or there is too much snow on the ground
The International Olympic Committee has banned Russia from taking part in the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea. Russian officials are not allowed to take part in the opening ceremony and the Russian flag will not be raised.
Russian athletes, however, will be able to take part as individuals under a neutral flag if the IOC has determined that they have been clean athletes in the past.
The decision comes after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) confirmed that Russia was guilty of systematic doping during the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. In a case of state-sponsored doping, officials tampered with urine samples to hide athletes’ drug abuse. More than 20 Russian athletes, among them some medal winners, have been disqualified from the final Sochi results.
The whole investigation into the doping claim started when Grigory Rodchenko, director of Russia’s anti-doping lab in Sochi 2014, defected to the United States. He stated that the country ran an official doping programme and switched samples during the Games. Doping was especiallywidespread in sports like biathlon and cross-country skiing. A report by the World’s anti-doping organization (WADA) stated that between 2012 and 2015 a thousand Russian athletes in 30 sports benefited from the programme.
Although many countries welcomed the IOC’s decision, it was sharply criticized in Russia. Some officials urged the country not to allow any of its athletes to take part in Pyeongchang Olympics. Russia would have ranked first in the Sochi medal table, but lost 13 medals because of the scandal, 4 of them in gold.
although = while
athlete = someone who takes part in a sports competition
ban = an order that does not allow a country to take part
benefit = something that helps you get better
biathlon = event in which athletes ski across fields and then shoot a rifle
claim = to say that something is true even if you have not proved it
clean athlete = an athlete who has not taken any illegal drugs
confirm = to say that something is true by giving proof
cross-country skiing = a race in which you ski-across fields
decision = order
defect = to leave your home country to go somewhere else, mostly because you have something to be afraid of
determine = find out the facts
disqualify = to take athletes out of the official results
doping = the practice of using drugs to improve performance in sport
drug abuse = here: taking drugs illegally
especially = above all
guilty = to do something that is not allowed
however = but
individual = here: a single person, not part of a country’s team
investigation = here: when organizations try to find out the truth about something
medal table = list that shows the number of medals that each country has won
official = person in a high position in an organisation
opening ceremony = the first event at the start of the Olympic Games
raise = put up
rank = the position in a table
sharply = very strongly
state-sponsored = the government knew about doping
switch = replace, exchange
tamper = to change something without permission
urge = to strongly suggest that you do something
urine samples = yellow liquid waste that comes out of your body; by examining urine experts can see if there are any illegal substances that an athlete has taken
The next Olympic Games have been awarded to Paris and Los Angeles. Both cities will host the games for the third time. 2024 will mark the 100th anniversary of the second Paris Olympics. The city had already organised the summer games of 1900. The 2028 Olympics will be held in Los Angeles for the third time, after 1932 and 1984. It is the first time that the International Olympic Committee has named host cities for two summer games at once. Los Angeles originally wanted the 2024 games but agreed to hosting them 4 years later.
The IOC presented the new hosts at a time when the organisation is troubled by corruption and accusations that some members took bribes to vote for the 2016 Rio Olympics.
The 2024 Paris Summer Olympics are expected to provide jobs and growth to the city. According to city officials, the games will generate 11 billion dollars in income and create jobs for 250 000 people in the next seven years. Although Paris already has many venues ready for the games, several new ones will be built. The city wants to attract visitors not only with the best sports stadiums but also with its unique cultural and historical sites.
Los Angeles organizers have also said they want to use many existing structures built in the 1980s in order to make the games as cost-efficient as possible.
After recent terrorist attacks in Paris, London, Barcelona and other major cities , security is expected to be the main factor for both events.
Today, not very many cities are keen on organising major sports events. On one side bidding costs millions of dollars and on the other side holding the games themselves costs local authorities and governments billions.
according to = as said by …
accusation = statement that says someone has done something wrong or against the law
agree = to say yes to something
although = while
award = give to someone
anniversary = date or year in which something important took place
bidding = here: to offer to organize an event
bribe = to give someone money illegally and you expect them to do something for you in return
cost-efficient = here: to save money by using buildings or infrastructure that already exist
generate = produce , create
growth = businesses and the economy grow in a certain region
host = here: city that holds a special event
income = the money you get for the work you do
keen on = happy to do something
local authorities = here: the people who are in charge of ruling a town or city
main factor = most important thing
major = very important; large
mark = celebrate an important event
official = person in an important position in a country
security = safety
several = many
site = interesting place
structure = building
troubled = worried; having many problems
unique = unusually special; very good
venue = here:place where a sports event takes place