Che Guevara was a Marxistrevolutionary who was a close aide of Fidel Castro during the Cuban Revolution. He was killed in Bolivia 50 years ago.
Che was born into a middle class Argentinian family in 1928 and studied medicine in his youth. From the beginning he was influenced by left-wing ideas and strongly opposed the government of Argentine leader Juan Peron.
Instead of finishing his studies, the young rebel decided to travel around South America, where he witnessedwidespread poverty and oppression among the population. In the 1950s he travelled to Guatemala where he saw how the CIA helped overthrow a leftist government.
In Mexico, Che Guevara met Fidel Castro and his brother Raul. Together , they planned to overthrow the pro-western government in Cuba. After Castro took power in 1959 , Che Guevara held some top posts in his government and also became Castro’s military adviser. He strongly opposed the United States and its policies. Instead he tried to strengthenties with the Soviet Union and spread socialism to Central America.
The Marxist revolutionary was sent to developing countries in order to show them how Cuban socialism worked. In Congo, he trained rebels to fight against government soldiers. Che Guevara was finally captured in Bolivia where he was he was executedin 1967.
adviser = person who gives you advice because they know a lot about a topic
aide = person who helps a politician or leader
capture = to catch a person and keep them as a prisoner
developing country = poor country in Africa, Asia or America
execute = to kill someone as a from of being punished
influence = to affect or change the way someone behaves or thinks
instead = in something’s place
government = the people who rule a country
Marxist = person who supports the ideas of Karl Marx. He explained changes in history as a result of the struggle between social classes
oppose = to be against
oppression = when you treat a group of people in an unfair way and do not give them the same rights that others have
overthrow = remove a leader or a government
policy = the way a government plans to handle a topic or problem
poverty= the situation of being poor
revolutionary = person who joins or supports a revolution
socialism = system in which many industries are owned by the state and rich people pay more taxes than poorer ones
strengthen = make stronger
take power = here: become a leader or the head of a government
60 years ago , on October 4th, 1957, the Soviet Unionlaunched the first man-made satellite into space. Sputnik showed that the Soviets were willing to overtake American technology. The launch was also the beginning of a new episode in the Cold War – the Space Race.
Sputnik looked like a big basketball and weighed 84 kilograms. Two radio transmitters and four antennae were attached to it. The satellite sent out a beeping signal and could be seen on Earth with the naked eye.
The Soviet satellite orbited the Earth over 1,400 times in a period of three months before it burned up in the atmosphere. A month later Sputnik 2 was launched, this time with the first animal on board, a dog named Laika.
Sergei Korolev was the father of the Soviet space program. He oversaw the creation of a booster rocket that sent Sputnik into orbit. Korolev was also responsible for bringing German engineers to the Soviet Union after World War II.
While Sputnik took the rest of the world by surprise, the Soviet Union told their people about the historic launch only a few days later.
In January 1958 the Americans were able to launch their first satellite into orbit. Explorer I remained in orbit until 1970 and was the first satellite to detect the Van Allen radiation belt. Later that year Congress passed a law that created NASA , the American space agency.
antenna = a long piece of wire used to receive radio or television signals
atmosphere = the mixture of gases that is around the Earth
booster rocket = a rocket that has enough power to send a satellite into Earth orbit
Cold War = unfriendly relationship between the USA and the Soviet Union after World War II
detect = to show that something existed
engineer = here: person who can understands how to build rockets and satellites
episode = time during which something happens
launch = start ; here: send into space
naked eye = without the help of a telescope
orbit = to go around a planet or star
oversee = to be in charge of ; the leader of
overtake = here: to do something more quickly than someone else
remain = stay
Soviet Union = largest Communist country in the world ; it existed between 1917 and 1991
space agency = government organisation that controls space travel and the study of space
transmitter = object that sends out radio signals
Van Allen radiation belt = particles of energy that are kept together by the Earth’s magnetic field
Barack Obama has become the first American president to visit Hiroshima. During his recent visit to Japan he visited the city which was destroyed by the first atomic bomb.
Together with Japan’s Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Obama laid a wreath at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial. In an emotional speech, Obama did not apologize to the Japanese people, but called the dropping of the first atomic bomb the biggest crime in human history. The American president demanded a world without nuclear weapons. The United States would also continue to stand by Japan, which turned from an enemy into an important ally in Asia. After the ceremony, Obama signed the guest book and spoke with survivors.
About 140,000 people were killed on August 6, 1945 when in the first atomic bomb exploded over the city. An additional 70000 died when the second bomb was dropped over Nagasaki. Nine days later Japan surrendered and World War II ended. Tens of thousands died from radiation illnesses in the decades that followed.
Obama did not mention the 20 000 Korean victims, who were forced to work for the Japanese in Hiroshima at the time of the bombing.
Although visiting Hiroshima has been a very sensitive issue for past American presidents, polls revealed that most Japanese wanted Obama to visit the city.
additional = extra
ally = a friendly country that you help
although = while
apologize = to say you are sorry for what happened
continue = keep on
crime = an action that is against the law
decade = period of ten years
demand = want, wish for
destroy = to damage completely, so that nothing is left
emotional = with strong feelings
force = make someone do something
lay a wreath = put down a circle of flowers at a place where people have died
memorial = an object or building that has been built to honor a person or a famous event
mention = talk about
nuclear weapon = a bomb that releases energy by splitting atoms; it can kill thousands of people and destroy whole cities
poll = a study in which people are asked about their opinion on a certain topic
radiation illness = here : people who became sick because of the dangerous energy that came from the bombs
recent = a short time ago
reveal = show
sensitive issue = here: something that you have to deal with carefully, so that you do not make others angry
sign = put your name on a document
stand by = support, help when it is needed
surrender = give up
survivor = person who managed to live on after the bombing