Over the next few decades, Europe’s Muslim population is expected to continue growing. A studyestimates that by 2050 the Muslim population could grow to 58 million, or 11 % of the total European population, compared to 5 % today.
The study conducted by Pew research, is based on census and immigrationdata from 30 countries. It created three scenarios. In the first scenario, Muslim immigration into Europe would come to a complete halt. Even then, the Muslim population would rise to 7.4 %. This is because Muslims, on average, are 13 years younger than Europeans and have a higher birth rate.
On the other side, a high migration scenario is based on the flow of refugees from 2015- 2016 and expects it to continue. If this happens, the total Muslim population in Europe will rise to 75 million, about 14% of the total population.
According to the Pew report, not all countries will be affected evenly by future Muslim immigration. Germany and Sweden will see the biggest increases because these two countries accepted most asylum seekers during the 2015-2016 refugee crisis.
At the moment, Germany (5 million) and France (5.7 Million) have the largest Muslim populations in Europe.
The recently published study is likely to cause more debate on immigration into Europe. It citesinstability in the Middle East and Northern Africa as well as the ongoing conflict in Syria as the main factors that drive people to European countries. In the last 6 years seeking asylum in conflict regions was the most important motive for Muslims coming to Europe. Only few came to Europe for employment or education.
according to = as reported by …
affect = here: changed by the situation
asylum seeker = person who leaves their country because they are in danger, mostly for political reasons, and asks another country to let them live there
birthrate = the number of births for every 1,000 people in a year
census = official counting of a country’s population
cite = mention
compared = to look at two things in a similar way
conduct = carry out
data = information
debate = discussion
decade = ten years
employment = job, work
factor = reason
flow = steady movement of people
estimate = to calculate how big something will be based on the information that you have
halt = stop
immigration = when you go to another country and plan to live there permanently
increase = to go up
instability = when the situation in a country is not stable because of war or other conflicts
is based on = use something as the starting point for your research
is expected to = will probably
motive = reason
ongoing conflict = here: conflict or war that is continuing
refugee = people who have to leave their home because of war or a natural disaster
rise = go up
scenario = situation that could possibly happen
study = piece of work that is done to find out more about a subject
A mysteriouschamber in an Egyptian pyramid has been recentlydiscovered by scientists. A special technique shows a large void hidden in the Great Pyramid of Giza near Cairo
The ScansPyramid project, led by the University of Cairo and the Egyptian government, uses advanced technology to find out more about ancient structures. Scientists from Egypt, France and Japan installed special detectors which could detect small particles called muons. These are a type of cosmic rain which constantly falls down on the earth. Threeseparateteams have conducted the research and have found the same cavity in the pyramid.
The newly found chamber in the Egyptian pyramid is 30 metres long and about the size of the Grand Gallery which is a known passageway that leads to the King’s Chamber. However, nothing else is known about the new room. It is also impossible to reach the space as there is no passage that leads to it. Experts also warn against having great expectations about new discovery inside the cavity. It is possible that the void does not have any meaning at all and was just left there for construction reasons.
The Great Pyramid, also known as the Pyramid of Khufu, was built at around 2650 BC. after the death of the pharaoh. It is the largest of the three remaining pyramids at Giza, which belong to the wonders of the ancient world.
advanced technology = modern and complicated machines and tools
ancient = old; from a long time ago
cavity = hole
chamber = room
conduct = carry out
cosmic = coming from space
detector = a machine that finds or measures something
discover = find something for the first time
expectation = here: what you think or hope you will find
government = the people who rule a country
however = but
mysterious = difficult to understand and explain
particle = very small piece of something
passageway = long narrow area in a building; corridor or hallway
pharaoh = king in ancient Egypt
recently = a short time ago
remaining = … which still exists
scientist = a person who is trained in science and works in a lab
structure = any kind of building
technique = special way fo doing or finding something
The Saudi Arabian government has announced that the country will start allowing women to drive cars. The new law will be in effect starting in June 2018. At the moment, Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that does not let women drive a car. The driving ban has become a symbol of oppression in the kingdom.
In the past Saudi women have had to organize drivers to take them to places in everyday life. If caught driving they risked being arrested and were sometimes even punished. Women were not even allowed to have a driving licence.
Countries around the world welcomed the step taken by Saudi king Salman ibn Abd al-Aziz. Many human rights groups have been fighting for women’s rights , including the right to drive, for years.
In the last few years, the Middle Eastern kingdom has been slowly granting women more rights in an attempt to open up to Western society. In 2015 , women, for the first time were allowed to vote and be candidates in local elections. Recently, the government announced that girls would be allowed to do sports and take part in physical education lessons in school.
Still, Saudi Arabian society is deeply conservative. Women still need a man’s permission to do certain things, including marrying or going abroad. Those who oppose the new law say that it would violate the sharia.
Saudi leaders hope that lifting the driving ban will let women take on a more more active role in the country’s booming economy.
announce = to say something officially, in public
arrest = to take a person to the police station because they have done something wrong
attempt = try
ban = to forbid something
booming = when the economy increases and businesses are very successful
deeply = very much
driving licence = document that says you have the right to drive
government = the people who rule a country
grant = give, award
human rights group = group of people who want everyone to have basic rights, like the right to vote or the right to speak freely
including = also
in effect = here: to start being a law
kingdom = country ruled by a king or queen
lift = remove
local election = when you choose a person to have an official job in a city or town
oppose = to be against something
oppression = to treat someone or a group of people in a bad way and not let them have the same rights as others
permission = to be officially allowed to do something
physical education = sports taught in school as a subject
sharia = a system of religious laws followed by Muslims