Over the next few decades, Europe’s Muslim population is expected to continue growing. A studyestimates that by 2050 the Muslim population could grow to 58 million, or 11 % of the total European population, compared to 5 % today.
The study conducted by Pew research, is based on census and immigrationdata from 30 countries. It created three scenarios. In the first scenario, Muslim immigration into Europe would come to a complete halt. Even then, the Muslim population would rise to 7.4 %. This is because Muslims, on average, are 13 years younger than Europeans and have a higher birth rate.
On the other side, a high migration scenario is based on the flow of refugees from 2015- 2016 and expects it to continue. If this happens, the total Muslim population in Europe will rise to 75 million, about 14% of the total population.
According to the Pew report, not all countries will be affected evenly by future Muslim immigration. Germany and Sweden will see the biggest increases because these two countries accepted most asylum seekers during the 2015-2016 refugee crisis.
At the moment, Germany (5 million) and France (5.7 Million) have the largest Muslim populations in Europe.
The recently published study is likely to cause more debate on immigration into Europe. It citesinstability in the Middle East and Northern Africa as well as the ongoing conflict in Syria as the main factors that drive people to European countries. In the last 6 years seeking asylum in conflict regions was the most important motive for Muslims coming to Europe. Only few came to Europe for employment or education.
according to = as reported by …
affect = here: changed by the situation
asylum seeker = person who leaves their country because they are in danger, mostly for political reasons, and asks another country to let them live there
birthrate = the number of births for every 1,000 people in a year
census = official counting of a country’s population
cite = mention
compared = to look at two things in a similar way
conduct = carry out
data = information
debate = discussion
decade = ten years
employment = job, work
factor = reason
flow = steady movement of people
estimate = to calculate how big something will be based on the information that you have
halt = stop
immigration = when you go to another country and plan to live there permanently
increase = to go up
instability = when the situation in a country is not stable because of war or other conflicts
is based on = use something as the starting point for your research
is expected to = will probably
motive = reason
ongoing conflict = here: conflict or war that is continuing
refugee = people who have to leave their home because of war or a natural disaster
rise = go up
scenario = situation that could possibly happen
study = piece of work that is done to find out more about a subject
According torecent scientific researchconducted by Germany’s Max Planck Institute, the plague was in Europe as far back as the Stone Age. When scanning the remains of 500prehistoric skeletons, scientists found plague bacteria in six individuals. The samples come from Russia, Germany and the Baltic countries.
The deadly bacterium came to Europe during the mass migration of people who moved from Central Asia eastwards about 5,000 years ago. The findings suggest that the disease came to Europe in waves during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Some experts think that people may have been moving eastwards to escape the bacterium.
Most of the people at that time were nomadic farmers who travelled with their livestock. Animals may have harboured the plague bacterium and helped spread it.
By analyzing the bacterium scientists hope to find out how it evolved and became more deadly over periods of time.
The plague was responsible for many mass killings in history. The deadliest was the Black Death which occurred in Europe during the 14th century and killed about a third of the continent’s population. It still causes deaths in certain areas of the world. Recent outbreaks in Madagascar have killed hundreds of people.
according to = as said by …
bacterium, bacteria = some living things, some of which cause illnesses or diseases
Baltic countries = Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Bronze Age = time between 6,000 and 4,000 years ago when bronze was used for making tools
century = a hundred years
conduct = do, carry out
disease = illness
escape = get away from
evolve = grow; develop; change
harbour = here: to have something in them that is dangerous
livestock = animals such as cows, sheep, goats that are kept on a farm
mass migration = when many people leave their homes, often in order to escape from a dangerous situation
Neolithic = the last period of the Stone Age, about 10,000 years ago, when people started to live in small groups
nomadic = people who travel from place to place instead of living in one place all the time
outbreak = when something suddenly starts to happen
plague = deadly disease that produces high fever and swollen places in the body; it often leads to deaths of a large number of people
prehistoric = time in history before anything was written down
recent = a short time ago
remains = what is left of a body
research = to study a subject seriously so that you can find out more about it
responsible = the reason for something
scan = look at something carefully
scientist = a person who is trained in science and works in a lab
spread = take from place to place
suggest = imply; to say that something is probably true
Stone Age = early time in human history when stone was used for making tools
Easter Island , or Rapa Nui as the natives call themselves , belongs to the remotest places on earth. The Chilean island, famous for its carved statues, is located in the middle of the southern Pacific Ocean.
For decades, scientists have been wondering how the natives got to the island before the first Europeans came in 1722. Most experts think that the first settlers came to Easter Island at around 1200 A.D. , probably on small boats crisscrossing the Pacific Ocean.
Other anthropologists have been trying to find out if the natives have any connections to early South Americans, three thousand kilometres away. Latest research now claims that the Easter Islanders were, in fact, more isolated than previously thought.
Scientists have been examining the skeletons and bones of five people that go back hundreds of years. However, they have found no evidence that suggests they have might have ancestors in South America.
The first theory of South American ancestry came up when Thor Heyerdahl saw sweet potatoes when he arrived there in the 1950s. He also found people using fishing tools that South Americans also used. Scientists at that time thought the people of the Easter Islands may have sailed to South America and back again some time before the Europeans came.
ancestor = a member of your family who lived a long time ago
anthropologist = a person who studies people , their cultures and where they come from
carved = to cut an object with a knife
claim = to say that something is true even if you cannot prove it
Chilean = from Chile
crisscross = to travel many times back and forth without a certain pattern ; zigzag
decade = ten years
evidence = facts that clearly show that something is true or exists
examine = to look very closely at an object
however = but
isolated = here: to be alone and far away from others
located = can be found
native = a person who was born in a country or place
previously = earlier
remote = very far away from civilisation
research = the study of a subject in order to find out new facts
sail = the wind brings you somewhere on a boat
scientist = a person who is trained in science and works in a lab
settler = a person who goes to live in a place where not many people have lived before
sweet potato = a vegetable that looks like a red potato ,is yellow inside and tastes sweet
More than half a million Rohingya have fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh in the past year. For ages, the people have been oppressed and discriminated against by the Myanmar government, which does not officially recognise them as a minority.
The Rohingya are a group of people without their own state. Living in western Myanmar, they have been deniedcitizenship, even though they have been there for ages.
The United Nations estimates that there were originally over 1 million Rohingya. Most of them are Muslim, a minority in predominantly Buddhist Myanmar. They are among the most persecuted people in the world.
Since 2016, army forces have been carrying out attacks against the Rohingya. There have been reports that whole villages in western Myanmar have been burned down as well as accusations of mass killings. Refugees arriving in Bangladesh also tell stories of women being raped by soldiers.
Myanmar’s government says it is responding to attacks by rebel Rohingya groups. Officials say that the Rohingya are not being persecuted and treated like other ethnic groups in the country.
The United Nations , Amnesty International and other human rights groups have called for a stop to what they call the ethnic cleansing of western Myanmar.
accusation = to say that someone has committed a crime or has done something wrong
citizenship = the right to belong to a certain country
deny = here: not give
discriminate against = to treat someone differently or in an unfair way
estimate = here: to guess how many there really are
ethnic cleansing = to make people leave a country because of their race , religion or culture
ethnic group = group of people who belong to a certain race , or who have their own culture, tradition and language
flee – fled = to leave a place very quickly in order to escape from a dangerous situation
government = the people who rule a country
minority = small group of people who live in a country
oppress = to treat a group of people in an unfair way and not give them the rights that other people have
persecute = to treat someone badly or unfairly over a period of time, because of their religion, or social status
predominantly = mostly
rape = to force someone to have sex
recognise = to officially accept
refugee = someone who has to leave their country because of a war or other dangerous situations