Voyager 2 has become the second man-made object to pass the boundary of the solar system and enter interstellar space. It is currently 18 billion km from earth. Its sister ship, Voyager 1 reached this boundary in 2012.
According toNASA scientists, the probe can operate for five to ten more years. It is so far away from earth that commands take about 16 hours to reach it.
Voyager 2 has entered the heliopause, an area where hot solar winds do not exist any more and the sun’s magnetic field ends. Interstellar space is the vast emptiness between star systems.
The spacecraft is better equipped than its predecessor, Voyager 1. It has instruments on board to measure speed , density and temperature of solar winds. Voyager 1 stopped sending back this data decades ago. Voyager 2 also sends other useful information back to scientists on earth.
The Voyager missions, which were launched in the 1970s have become a great success for NASA. Both craft have traveled beyond their projected destinations. The two spacecraft were originally created to study Jupiter and Saturn more closely. Later, it turned out that Uranus and Neptune could also be examined before the probes left the solar system.
Even though their power sources will eventually stop, the Voyager probes will continue to move on to places no man-made object have gone before.
according to = as said by ..
beyond = farther than
boundary = a line where one are ends and another one starts
command = instruction
craft = spaceship
currently = at the moment
data = information
decade = ten years
density = the relationship between how big something is and how it is filled
equipped = here: it has instruments on board
emptiness = with nothing in it
even though = while
eventually = in the end, finally
examine = to look closely at something and find out more information about it
interstellar space = the area between star systems
launch = send into space
magnetic field = the area around an object that has magnetic power
measure = to find out how high, fast etc.. something is
man-made object = something that is made by people , not by nature
NASA = the American space agency
originally = at first
power source = where the energy to move on comes from
predecessor = here: the spacecraft that was launched before it
probe = unmanned spaceship that has instruments on board
projected destination = the place they were originally planned to go to
reach = get to; arrive at
scientist = a person who is trained in science and works in a lab
solar = from the sun
solar system = our sun and the planets that move around it
Apple has become the first US company to reach a market value of 1 trillion dollars ($1,000,000,000,000) . The hi-tech firm has beaten its rivalsMicrosoft, Google and Amazon to pass the magical mark. Apple’s stock is now worth $207 per share, an all-time high. If it were a country, Apple would rank 17th in the world, on par with Indonesia.
Before Apple, only China’s oil giant PetroChina made it over the 1 trillion dollar mark back in 2007. It’s valuedeclined sharply shortly afterwards when oil prices collapsed.
Apple was founded in 1976 in a California garage by Steve Jobs. In the first two decades the company was famous for producing computers. Later on Apple developed its revolutionary MP3 player, the iPod, which also saved the company from bankruptcy 20 years ago.
The iPhone, the world’s first smartphone, was introduced in 2007 and has become the company’s flagship product. Up to now over 1.3 billion iPhones have been sold. AlthoughApple is currentlyselling fewer new models, sales and profits are rising. It is also making money by selling music and apps.
In 2017, Apple has made profits in the range of $50 billion, selling over $220 billion worth of products .
Apple may soon be joined in the 1 trillion dollar club by other hi-tech giants . Amazon and Microsoft are close to the mark and may be passing it soon.
all-time high = the highest point ever reached
although = while
bankruptcy = situation in which you have no money left and cannot pay back what you owe to others
collapse = here: to go down very quickly
close = near
currently = at the moment
decade = ten years
decline = to go down very fast
develop = to design and produce a new product
flagship = the best and most important product
found- founded = here: to start a new company
introduce = here: to bring to the market
join = to be together with others
market value = what a company is worth on the market
on par = on the same level
profit = the money you get by selling products and services after your costs have been paid
rank = position
reach = get to a certain point
revolutionary = something completely new and different
rival = another company that wants to be more successful than you are
share = a part of a company that belongs to you
stock = the total value of all the company’s shares
Amazon has opened its first automated store to the public. Amazon Go is a grocery store located on the ground level of the corporation’s Seattle headquarters.
The store, which offers food, salads and boxed meals could revolutionize our shopping experience in the future.
As soon as you arrive at the store, a cell phone app connected to an Amazon account registers your presence. Everything that happens in the store is tracked by hundreds of infrared cameras. When you pick up items from the shelves they are automaticallyput into yourvirtualshopping cart. The cameras also detect when you put an item back on the shelves and remove it from your cart. The moment you walk out your account is charged without making any physicalpayment.
The technologies used at Amazon Go are the same as with driverless cars – computer tracking, weight sensors on shelves and complicatedalgorithms.
The 1,800 square foot store has been open to Amazon employees for a year. Now the public can also shop there.
However, not everything has been running smoothly in the store’s opening year.There were hardships to overcome. For example, it’s hard for cameras to distinguish between different flavours or products that look the same. They also have problems handling people who move around or identifying shoppers with similar body sizes and clothes.
Even though there are no checkout counters and cashiers who make you wait in line, there are shop assistants who restock goods and help customers find their way around.
account = here: the services of a company that you use
algorithm = set of instructions that are followed in a fixed order and used for solving problems
automated = using computers, cameras and machines
boxed meal = meal that has already been cooked and is ready to eat
cashier = person who you pay money to in a shop
charge = you have to pay money for the goods you buy
checkout counter = place where you pay for products when you leave a store
complicated = difficult
connect = link
corporation = big company
detect = discover, notice
distinguish = find the difference between two things
driverless = without a driver
employee = a person who works there
even though = although, while
flavour = the taste of something
hardships = problems, difficulties
headquarters = place from where a company operates
however = but
identify = find out the name of someone
infrared = light that gives out heat but cannot be seen
item = product
located = to be found; situated
overcome = solve
physical payment = real money you pay with in a store
presence = someone is present
public = here: everybody
register = record
restock = bring in more items to replace those that have been bought
revolutionize = to change completely the way you do something
shopping experience = the way we shop
similar = almost the same
smoothly = here: the way it should; without any problems
track = watch closely
virtual = not real; here: your Amazon account
weight sensor = small object that finds out if there is something on the shelf or not
The Ford Motor Company has revealed plans to invest over $11 billion dollars in the development and production of electric cars by 2022. The announcement was made public at the Detroit Motor Show.
The American carmaker plans to produce 16 fully battery-driven vehicles and 24 hybrid cars by 2022. At the moment the Focus is the only Ford car that can be driven by batteries alone.
Apart from producing electric-driven cars for the North American market, Ford also aims at increasing sales to China, the largest growing car market in the world. In addition, it wants to become the world’s leader in fuel-efficient trucks. The car producer also plans to bring a battery-drivenSUV on the market by 2020.
Instead of creating completely new electric vehicles from scratch, Ford wants to electrify cars that are already popular because people will know what they get and buy more easily.
Automobile manufacturers around the world are under pressure to develop electric cars because many large countries, including China, India, France and the U.K. have said they would phase out vehicles powered by internal combustion engines within the next two decades. They also face fiercecompetition from companies like Tesla, a car-maker that specialises in innovative technologies.
As battery costs are going down rapidly, carmakers may find it easier to produce electric cars with higher mileage and at cheaper prices.
aim = target , plan
announcement = official statement
apart from = other than
battery-driven = run by a battery
billion = a thousand million
competition = trying to be more successful than other companies
decade = ten years
development = working on a new product
electrify = make electric
fierce = here: strong
from scratch = to start something from the beginning without using anything that has existed before
fuel-efficient = car that burns fuel in a more effective way than usual; it does not need as much fuel as others do
fully = completely
higher mileage = here: to make an electric car that can travel more miles or kilometres before you have to recharge it
hybrid car = a car that has both a petrol or diesel engine and an electric motor
in addition = also
innovative = new way of doing something; often better than existing methods
instead of = in something’s place
internal combustion engine = engine that produces power by burning petrol or diesel; it is used in most cars
invest = spend money on …
make public = to say something for everyone to hear
manufacturer = producer
phase out = to slowly stop using or producing something
popular = well-known and liked by many people
production = here: making cars
rapidly = quickly
reveal = announce to many people
sales = selling cars
SUV = sport-utility vehicle = car that is bigger and is made for travelling over rough ground; mostly with a 4-wheel drive
under pressure = to make someone do something by using arguments and threats
vehicle = a machine with a motor that is used to take people or things from one place to another
California has become the largest American state to legalize the sales of marijuana for recreational use. In November 2016, citizens in the state voted in favour of a proposition that would allow citizens to possesssmall amounts of the substance. It is now legal to grow six plants of your own or have an ounce of pot.
About 90 licences are to be handed outstatewideto shops that want to sell recreational marijuana. In the last two decades, special shops have been allowed to sell marijuana only for medical reasons, in order to treat pain and anxiety. People who want to buy medical marijuana need a prescription from a doctor.
Apart from legalizing the drug, there will be strict controls monitored by state authorities. Californians will not be allowed to consume marijuana in public places or near schools. Local governments will be able to set up their own rules on where smoking is allowed.
Despite this new state law, the federal government still looks at marijuana as an illegal substance. California has become the eighth state to legalize the drug.
In 2016 California produced about 13 million pounds of pot. 80% of it was transferred illegally out of the state.The illegal marijuana market, currently at 5 billion dollars, is expected to grow to 7 billion in California by 2020. In addition, the state will be able to generateadditional taxes from selling legal marijuana.
Shopkeepers who have been able to sell medical marijuana are worried that prices will go up because of additional taxes. Some fear that additional licences could ruin their business.
additional = extra
anxiety = feeling worried about or afraid of something
apart from = besides
authorities = organisation that can make decisions
billion = a thousand million
citizen = person who lives in a place and has rights there
consume = here: smoke
currently = at the moment
decade = ten years
despite = even though
federal government = the government of the United States, not the state government
generate = produce, get
government = people who rule a country or state
hand out = give to someone
illegal substance = drug that is not allowed
in addition = also
in favour of = to be for something
legal = allowed
legalize = allow
licence = here: a document that allows you to sell something
marijuana = illegal drug that is smoked like a cigarette
monitor = to watch carefully
ounce = unit for measuring weight = 28.35 grams
pain = feeling you have when something hurts
possess = own, have
pot = another word for marijuana
prescription = piece of paper on which a doctor writes down what medicine you need
According to a new publication by Amercian neurologists, regular exercise can improve your memory and thinking skills. We know that exercise has proven to be good for your heart and overall fitness, but now doctors say that it can actually help you remember things.
As we get older most of us have problems with memory, language and thinking about certain things. This is called mild cognitive impairment (MCI) .In mostcases, such problems don’t influenceour everyday life but we realize them. Exercising may slowdownthe rate of MCI and reduce the risk of getting dementia at a later phase in life.
Unlike people with dementia, those with mild cognitive impairment can cope with their regular routine, like getting dressed or preparing meals. However, they may have trouble remembering dates, appointments and where they left their keys. This may be the first step to Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.
While there is no medicine and dietary way to fight against memory loss, neurologists encourage people to do some form of aerobic exercise, like walking, running or cycling or swimming for a total of 2 .5 hours a week. They recommend exercising just so fast that you don’t sweat and can talk to others.
More than 6% of all people around the world have a mild form of cognitive impairment. As people get older the rate increases and jumps to 37% of all over 85 year olds.
according to = as said by …
aerobic exercise = activity that makes your lungs and heart stronger
Alzheimer’s disease = disease that affects the brain, especially of old people; it is difficult to move, talk and remember things
appointment = meeting you have with someone
cope = deal with
dementia = illness that affects the brain and memory; you slowly lose the ability to think clearly and remember things
dietary = about the food you eat
encourage = say that you should do something because it is good for you
exercise = do physical activity
however = but
improve = to make a situation better
increase = go up
influence = change
memory = the ability to remember things, places and events
memory loss = losing your memory
publication = when information is printed so that everyone can read it
neurologist = person who studies the brain and our nervous system and the diseases connected to them
overall = general
rate = how fast something grows
realize = know that something is there or exists
recommend = suggest
reduce = make lower
regularly = often; at the same time every day or week
skill = things we can do because we have practised them
slow down =make slower
sweat = to do something so fast that you have drops of salty liquid coming out of your skin
For the second year in a row life expectancy in the United States has decreased. One of the main reasons is the rise in opioid-related deaths, especially with young adults.
Life expectancy in 2016 was 78.6 years, compared with 78.4 years two years earlier. It is the first two-year decline in over 50 years. While life expectancy in other parts of the world is going up, the average American is dying at an earlier age.
According to a recently published report, overdoses of painkillers and other opioids are causing more and more premature deaths. The figures have risen from 6.1 per 100,000 people in 1999 to 21 per 100,000 people in 2016.
Last year 63 000 people died from some form of drug overdose. While 15000 of them were heroinaddicts an alarming 14000 died from other painkillers. Most of them were in the 28-54 year age group.
In many cases, drug abuse is caused by a general dissatisfaction with a person’s personal situation. This results indepression and hopelessness if addicts don’t have a family to support them. Such victims don’t have the stability that they need. As a consequence, they turn to alcohol and drugs.
Opioids are drugs that reducepain by targeting pain receptors in the brain. You need a doctor’s prescription to get them, but more and more people are buying them illegally on the streets.
While many start out with painkilling drugs, they later turn to heroin, also an opioid. In the terminal stages of cancer, morphine is often used to reduce a patient’s pain.
abuse = using something in a way that you shouldn’t
according to = as reported by …
addict = someone who is not able to stop taking drugs
as a consequence = this results in; it leads to
average = normal
brain = organ in your head that control your thoughts, feelings and movements
cancer = very serious illness in which cells in your body grow in an uncontrollable way
compared with= to look at two things and see how they are different
decline = when something goes down
decrease = to go down
depression = a medical condition in which you are unhappy with yourself and cannot lead a normal life
dissatisfaction = here: not being happy with yourself
especially = above all
heroin = powerful and illegal drug made of morphine
illegally = not allowed; against the law
life expectancy = the number of years a person is expected to live
morphine = powerful drug that is used to make people calmer and stop the pain
opioid = a drug that acts on the nervous system to reduce pain
overdose = to take too much of a drug at one time
pain = the feeling you have when part of your body hurts
painkiller = medicine which removes or reduces pain
premature = when something happens before the natural time
prescription = piece of paper that a doctor writes so that an ill person can get medicine
recently = a short time ago
receptor = a nerve ending that gets information and causes the body to react in a special way
reduce = lower
result in = lead to, be the reason for somehting
stability = here: strength
target = attack
terminal stages = the last days, weeks or months before a person dies of an illness
California’s Department of Health has published new guidelines on how to handle cell phones. It warns that radiationemitted from cell phones can be harmful but does not say that cell phones are dangerous.
.Health authorities in California suggest a few measures cell phone users should take. When sleeping, you should keep your phone at least an arm’s length away from your body. You should also avoid keeping your cell phone in your pocket. They also recommend only using cell phones when reception is strong.
Some doctors agree that carrying cell phones close to your body could increase the risk of getting brain tumours , cancer and becoming infertile. It may also lead to headaches, hearing problems and a lossof memory. On the other side, there are many health experts who say that the risks cell phone usage present are not proven
Cell phones emitradiation in the form of low-energy radio waves when they receive and send signals from cell towers. The frequencies that cell phones use could be linked to various illnesses.
The new cell phone guidelines have existed since 2009 but not been published. Recently, a Berkeley professor won a lawsuit against the Department of Health to release the guidelines to the public and push for more action.
authorities = government organisation that can make decisions
avoid = stop; not do something
brain tumour = illness in your brain in which cells increase in an uncontrolled way
cancer = serious disease in which cells in one part of your body start to grow in a way that is not normal
cell tower = high object that sends out and receives cell phone signals
Department of Health = authorities that are responsible for health programs and health information that is given to the public
emit = release, send out
guidelines = instructions on how people should do something or deal with something
handle = use
increase = go up
infertile = if you are not able to have babies
lawsuit = a problem that is settled by a judge in court
loss of memory = when you start forgetting things
public = the people in general
publish = to release official information to all people
radiation = form of energy that is sent out as waves that you cannot see
receive = pick up, get
recently = a short time ago
reception = the quality of the signal you get for your cell phone
Leonardo da Vinci’s portrait of Christ was sold for $450 million at an art auction at Christie’s in New York. It was more than double the price of any art object ever sold.
The painting, Salvator Mundi, is one of the raremasterpieces of the Renaissance painter. Created at around 1500 it is one of 20 da Vinci paintings still in private possession.
Salvator Mundi was once owned by King Charles I of England in the middle of the 17th century. The painting was believed to have been destroyed until it resurfaced in 1900. In England, it was sold for a mere $125 because art experts at the time thought it was a worthless copy, either done by one of da Vinci’s followers or students. Even today, the painting’s authenticity is still in doubt.
After being restored several times, a Russian billionaire bought the painting in 2013. The new owner intends to remain anonymous.
The oil painting shows the upper body of Jesus Christ as the world’s saviour. In one hand he holds a glass sphere in, while the other hand is raised in blessing.
Currently, there is only one da Vinci in the United States. Ginevra de’ Benci can be observedin public at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
anonymous = not known by name
auction = a public meeting where paintings and other things are sold to the person who offers the most money
authenticity = the quality of being real or true
billionaire = person who has one thousand million dollars, euros etc..
in blessing = with the help or protection from God
century = a hundred years
Christie’s = famous auction house in New York
currently = now, at the moment
destroy = to damage completely so that you no longer can use it
in doubt = here: it may not be real
in public = where everyone can see it
intend = want to be
masterpiece = a work of art that is of very high quality or the best of a famous artist
mere = only
observe = see something
own = possess; if something belongs to you
possession = something that belongs to you
raise = hold up
rare = not found very often
Renaissance = period of time in Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries, when art, literature and scientific ideas became very important
restore = repair, so that it appears like it once was
resurface = to appear again after being lost or missing for some time
saviour = a person who saves someone in a dangerous situation – here: Jesus Christ
For the first time in history, China has overtaken the United States in the number of supercomputers. Currently, China has a total of 202 of the world’s 500 fastest computers, up from 159 half a year ago. The number of US supercomputers has dropped to 144.
The world’s most powerful computer is located in China. The Sunway TaihuLight , at Wuxi can do 93 quadrillioncalculations per second. The fastest UScomputer,the Titan, is ranked fifth while Europe’s speediest computer is Switzerland’s Piz Daint, ranked third.
Supercomputers are machines that occupyentire buildings and use the combined power of thousands of processors. They are used to carry out special tasks that involve a huge number of calculations. Among them are weather forecasts and climate studies, as well as strategic tasks like nuclear weapons simulations.
Chinese supremacy in the world of supercomputing reflects the country’s investment in research and development. One-fifth of the money used on research and development around the world is spent in China.
On the other side, many Chinese systems have been created to earn money. Processing power is rented to other national and international companies.
For years the speed of supercomputers has steadily increased although since 2012 this increase has slowed down.
although = while
calculation = here: a single task
combined = everything put together
create = make
currently = at the moment, now
drop = go down
entire = whole
huge = very big; very many
investment = to use money for special things
involve = need
located = can be found
nuclear weapons simulation = here: software that tries to find out how nuclear bombs will affect the world and its population if they are used
occupy = use up; need
overtake = to be better than
processor = central part fo a computer that deals with commands and the information you give it
quadrillion= the number one followed by 24 zeros
ranked = position in a list
reflect = show, demonstrate
rent = let someone use something for money
research and development = to study special fields and use new ideas to create new things
speediest = fastest
steadily = slowly
strategic = here: about the military
supremacy = being number one or the best in the world
task = piece of work
weather forecast = a description of what the weather will be like in the next few days